Collaborative Resources for
Learning Developmental Biology
Collaborative Resources for Learning Developmental Biology
n a v
Parhyale Germline Migration Stage 13-19
Print Page Email Page Add to Favorites Share


Nipam Patel
Website     WebsiteEmail

Additional Author(s): Matthias Gerberding

Organisms: Invertebrates
Tools & Techniques: Embryo Manipulation; Microscopy
Morphogenesis: Cell Movements
The Germline: Germ Cell Migration
Evolutionary Developmental Biology: Macroevolution
Organism: Parhyale
Stage of Development: Embryo

Object Description

Migrating primordial germ cells (PGCs) in the crustacean, Parhyale hawaiensis.  Stage 13 embryo in the upper left corner, followed by images at fifteen progressively later time points, reaching stage 19 in the final lower right image (spanning about 36 hours of development).  Ventral views with anterior up.

At the eight-cell stage, the "g" micromere is the precursor to the PGCs.  By injecting this cell with a lineage tracer, live imaging techniques can be used to follow the migration of the PGCs from the eight-cell stage to hatching.  In this series of images, PGCs (red) are followed in a living embryo from stage 13 to stage 19 (early to mid germband stages). At stage 13 the segments of the head are organized, but the ectodermal cells of the rest of the embryo are still condensing and aligning to form the rest of the body. At this time, the PGCs congregate at the ventral midline just below the posterior part of the head (gnathal region).  The cells then divide into two groups that begin to migrate laterally away from the ventral midline.  By stage 19 all the segments are morphologically visible and limbs have extended.  At this time, the PGCs have formed two distinct clusters and have moved to positions slightly lateral to the midline and underneath the developing gnathal appendages.  The two clusters will continue to migrate laterally and posteriorly across the left and right sides of the embryo to reach the developing somatic gonads on the dorsal side of the embryo by stage 25.


Gerberding, M., Browne, W.E., and N. H. Patel. Cell lineage analysis of the amphipod crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis reveals an early restriction of cell fates. Development, 2002, 129:5789-5801.

Browne W.E., A.L. Price, M. Gerberding, N.H. Patel. Stages of embryonic development in the amphipod crustacean, Parhyale hawaiensis. Genesis, 2005, 42:124-149.

Extavour, C.G. The fate of isolated blastomeres with respect to germ cell formation in the amphipod crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. Dev Biol, 2005, 277, 387-402.

Rehm, E.J., R.L. Hannibal, R.C. Chaw, M.A. Vargas-Vila and N.H. Patel.  The crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis: a new model for arthropod development. In “Emerging Model Organisms, A Laboratory Manual” (Gann, A. & D. Crotty, eds.) Cold Spring Harbor, NY, Cold Spring Harbor Press, 2009, pp. 373-404.

Comment on this Object

You must be logged in to CoRe to comment. Please login or create an account.


Submit to CoRe